Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the breast tissue. It is the most common cancer among women worldwide and can also affect men, although it is much less common. Breast cancer can originate in different parts of the breast, including the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal carcinoma), the lobules that produce milk (lobular carcinoma), or in other breast tissues.

Types of Breast Cancer:
* Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS):
DCIS is a non-invasive form of breast cancer where abnormal cells are found in the lining of the breast ducts but have not spread outside the ducts into surrounding breast tissue.

* Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC):
IDC is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It starts in the milk ducts of the breast and invades nearby breast tissue.

* Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC):
ILC starts in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast and can spread to nearby breast tissue and other parts of the body.

* Triple-Negative Breast Cancer:
This type of breast cancer is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression. It tends to be more aggressive and is often treated with chemotherapy.

HER2-Positive Breast Cancer:
HER2-positive breast cancer is characterized by the overexpression of the HER2 protein, which promotes the growth of cancer cells. It may be treated with targeted therapies that specifically target HER2, in addition to other treatments such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer:
This type of breast cancer is characterized by the presence of hormone receptors (estrogen receptor-positive or progesterone receptor-positive) on the surface of cancer cells. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers may be treated with hormone therapy (such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) to block the effects of estrogen and/or progesterone on cancer cell growth.

Surgical Solutions for Breast Cancer:
* Lumpectomy:
Also known as breast-conserving surgery or partial mastectomy, lumpectomy involves the surgical removal of the tumor and a margin of surrounding healthy breast tissue. It is typically performed for early-stage breast cancer and is often followed by radiation therapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the breast.

* Mastectomy:
Mastectomy is the surgical removal of the entire breast. Depending on the extent of the disease and individual factors, different types of mastectomy may be performed, including:
Simple mastectomy: Removal of the entire breast tissue, including the nipple and areola.

* Skin-sparing mastectomy:
Removal of the breast tissue while preserving the breast skin.

* Nipple-sparing mastectomy:
Removal of the breast tissue while preserving the breast skin and nipple-areola complex.

* Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy:
This surgical procedure involves the removal and examination of the sentinel lymph nodes, which are the first lymph nodes to which cancer cells are likely to spread from the primary tumor. It helps determine if cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and guides further treatment decisions.

* Axillary Lymph Node Dissection:
In cases where cancer has spread to the sentinel lymph nodes or is at high risk of spreading, axillary lymph node dissection may be performed to remove additional lymph nodes from the armpit (axilla). This procedure helps determine the extent of lymph node involvement and may guide adjuvant treatment decisions.

* Reconstructive Surgery:
After mastectomy, some women may choose to undergo breast reconstruction to restore the shape and appearance of the breast. Reconstruction may be performed using implants or autologous tissue (flap reconstruction) and can be done at the time of mastectomy or as a delayed procedure.

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